Yayasan Badan Wakaf (Universitas Islam Indonesia)
Project Title IPv6 Anywhere, Accelerating IPv6 Adoption with Multiple Models of IPv6 Deployments
Amount Awarded USD 60,000
Dates covered by this report: 2022-07-22 to 2023-08-01
Report submission date 2024-03-26
Economies where project was implemented Indonesia
Project leader name
Mukhammad Andri Setiawan
Project Team
Akhmad Rafiuddin (IPv6 Trainer)
Arif Kurniawan (IPv6 Trainer)
Frendi Yusroni Romadhona (IPv6 Trainer)
Pandu Bangun Asmoro (Software Developer and Automation Engineer)
Agus Setiawan (SD-WAN Specialist)
Linda Agustina (DevOps Engineer)
Fitria Prihatink (Project Admin)
Partner organization Eduroam

Project Summary

IPv6 deployment has been a challenge in many countries, including Indonesia. In 2018, Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) started using IPv6 but faced minimal bandwidth usage due to the limited availability of IPv6-based content and infrastructure. However, the landscape has changed, with more global content providers delivering their content via IPv6. Despite this progress, less than 15% of users in Indonesia were using IPv6 as of the last assessment. UII, consistently a top IPv6 user in the country, was awarded by the Ministry of ICT of the Republic of Indonesia in December 2023 for its IPv6 achievements. The university was working to replicate and improve its IPv6 deployment strategies in sectors such as education and government to accelerate implementation across Indonesia.

The project aimed to deliver IPv6 to end-users and organizations with minimal effort, focusing on higher education institutions, research organizations, and government agencies. It proposed intensive workshops on IPv6 and delivered an easy-to-implement, SDN-based solution for distributing IPv6 addresses to address the lack of IPv6 adoption in Indonesia. The project began with workshops and training for engineers, the main targets in deploying IPv6. It then continued with IPv6 deployment, providing tunnel-broker appliances to pilot participants.

During the project, there were at least three significant achievements. Firstly, specialized workshops and training sessions were conducted, engaging 108 participants from 64 institutions and highlighting the keen interest in and the need for IPv6 knowledge across various sectors. Secondly, tunnel broker software was developed and successfully implemented as a proof of concept in some participating organizations. Thirdly, academic research complemented practical efforts, resulting in a paper based on a detailed survey. This paper emphasized the need for IPv6 workshops to address real-world engineering challenges, such as large-scale IPv6 deployment in enterprises.

Table of Contents

Background and Justification

The problem with IPv6 deployments in Indonesia was multifaceted, with several complicated issues arising from limited implementation. While technically, IPv6 had been successfully established at the level of BGP peering and core routers, it needed to be delivered effectively to end-users. Many of these deployments only served as proof that IPv6 worked within core networks, but they did not extend to end-user devices. This limited implementation hindered the development of a robust IPv6 infrastructure and the adoption of IPv6 by ISPs and content providers. Moreover, when end clients were not IPv6-enabled, content providers saw no benefits in delivering their content through the IPv6 protocol. This created a chicken-and-egg situation where content providers hesitated to invest in IPv6 adoption, while end-users lacked access to IPv6 content, further discouraging its use. The continued reliance on IPv4 infrastructure could lead to issues such as IP address exhaustion and limitations in scalability, making the transition to the more robust and scalable IPv6 protocol increasingly necessary.

Limited IPv6 deployment might also have slowed down technological advancement and innovation in Indonesia, as businesses, educational institutions, and research organizations might have been unable to take full advantage of the benefits offered by IPv6. The project aimed to tackle these issues by providing IPv6 to end-users regardless of their internet connectivity. By enabling end clients to use IPv6, even if their ISPs did not support it natively, content providers would be encouraged to adopt IPv6. This project could help end-users receive IPv6 on their devices with minimal effort and, in turn, drive the overall adoption of IPv6 in Indonesia.

The approach to promoting IPv6 in Indonesia primarily involved campaigns by the Ministry of ICT (Kominfo), IP Forum meetings to encourage telco operators, and workshops provided by IDNIC (National Internet Registry of the Republic of Indonesia). However, this approach seemed to fall short of comprehending the underlying reasons why numerous organizations were reluctant to implement IPv6, not only in their core networks but also at the edge, reaching clients and end-users, as most campaigns only talked about IPv6 itself rather than viewing it from multiple perspectives including social aspects such as organizations' readiness.

Our approach began with a survey to comprehend the factors that caused organizations to resist change and identify what motivated them to deploy IPv6. Following the analysis of survey results, we offered targeted workshops to participants that encompassed theoretical knowledge and practical implementation in a virtual lab setting. These workshops fostered intense discussions surrounding IPv6 deployment-related technology, such as routing and automation for large enterprises. The aim was to address IPv6 deployment on the border/core router side and at layer three switches, which are prevalent throughout enterprise networks.

Project Implementation Narrative

The lack of widespread IPv6 implementation in Indonesia hindered the development of a robust infrastructure, creating a chicken-and-egg situation that discouraged adoption and prolonged reliance on the outdated IPv4 protocol. This project explored a unique approach to encourage organizations to adopt IPv6 by understanding their resistance to change and identifying motivating factors. The primary objectives of this approach included conducting a survey, analyzing its results, offering targeted workshops that blended theoretical and practical learning, and fostering discussions on IPv6 deployment-related technology. The ultimate goal was to address IPv6 implementation at all levels of infrastructures, including layer three switches commonly found within enterprise networks.

Throughout the project, our team prioritized engaging with and addressing the needs of the specific community served, ensuring a tailored and effective approach from project design to implementation. Initially, we sought to understand the factors that caused engineers and organizations to be reluctant to implement IPv6. This understanding was crucial in shaping the project's design and strategy. Upon gaining insight into the underlying reasons for resistance to IPv6 adoption, we proceeded with the development and execution of customized workshops. These workshops were designed to cater to the specific concerns and challenges faced by participants, aiming to alleviate their fears and boost their confidence in working with IPv6.

The first workshop took place in Balikpapan, Kalimantan. We chose Balikpapan as the location for the event due to its proximity to the proposed new capital of the Republic of Indonesia, Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN). Our goal was to bridge the knowledge gap between engineers in Kalimantan and Java regarding IPv6. Our initial research showed that engineers outside of Java, including those in Kalimantan, often had a limited understanding of IPv6 and the internet. To address this problem, we organized a workshop there. The workshop was successfully held and attended by 42 participants from 25 institutions, exceeding our expectations of 30 participants. We had to reject many requests for registration due to the venue's limited space.

An infographic of the Balikpapan workshop

The second workshop took place in Yogyakarta, known as an education city with numerous big universities and over 300,000 higher education students from all over Indonesia. With many higher education institutions in Yogyakarta, IT engineers often exchanged knowledge and experiences in technology deployment, including IPv6. The workshop in Yogyakarta aimed to ensure that IPv6 was deliverable at scale. The workshop targeted engineers who already had a basic understanding of IPv6 but were still reluctant to implement it due to the sheer number of equipment needing reconfiguration. It was attended by 32 participants from 18 institutions across Yogyakarta and the surrounding areas.

An infographic of the Yogyakarta workshop

The third workshop occurred in Bandung, a city similar to Yogyakarta, hosting top universities in Indonesia. However, unlike Yogyakarta, where IT engineers often exchanged knowledge and experiences, Bandung lacked such an environment. As many universities in Bandung had higher authorities at the national level, we decided to host the workshop there so that the universities in Bandung could help us voice how important IPv6 is. The workshop was attended by 34 participants from 21 institutions coming from West Java.

An infographic of the Bandung workshop

During the workshops, we encouraged and supported the participants, ensuring they felt empowered and equipped to handle IPv6 implementation in their respective organizations. We motivated participants to embrace IPv6 and overcome existing reluctance by fostering a positive and supportive learning environment. Throughout the project's implementation, our team maintained a strong focus on the unique needs and concerns of the target community. We created a highly effective and targeted approach to promote IPv6 adoption among engineers and organizations by addressing these needs and concerns from project design to implementation.

Some findings we made during the workshop were:

  1. Technical knowledge was not sufficient to implement IPv6. Higher-level approval was needed in most organizations before implementing IPv6. Most attendees were engineers. In most circumstances, even though engineers could implement IPv6, resistance often came from higher-level authorities who often had an "if it ain't broken, don't fix it" mentality.
  2. Reconfiguring the sheer number of equipment in a big enterprise was challenging. This situation often overwhelms engineers, making them reluctant to adopt IPv6.
  3. Indonesia is big, and the knowledge gap is often too much. Java is the most advanced island, with some great engineers. However, different situations existed outside Java, where many engineers failed to understand the basic concept of IPv6 or even how networks or the internet work. Hence, we thought that in the future, we needed to travel more to those places to lower the gap.

To address concerns regarding IPv6 adoption in Indonesia, we collaborated closely with IDNIC, the National Internet Registry of the Republic of Indonesia. IDNIC provided us with access to resources such as trainers, labs, and a network of people across the country. Through this collaboration, our project team gained insights into how IPv6 addresses were being allocated in Indonesia and whether any strategies were in place to encourage organizations to incorporate IPv6 into their allocations.

We also shared insights from a previously conducted survey with IDNIC's trainers, which allowed them to tailor their approach when delivering workshops to the project's target participants. The survey was distributed to various communities, with a primary focus on universities, as they represented the main target audience for the project. By engaging with these educational institutions, the project team gathered valuable information that helped shape the workshops and ultimately drive the successful promotion and adoption of IPv6 in Indonesia.

Our project also resulted in the development of a prototype of a tunnelling broker. This prototype was designed to benefit any organization in Indonesia that lacked the necessary resources, such as skilled engineers and reliable ISPs, to obtain their IPv6. Our SDN-based prototype took inspiration from Hurricane Electric's IPv6 Tunnel Broker and used Mikrotik, the most commonly used network equipment brand in Indonesia, as the foundation of the tunnel broker. Our team created a web-based interface that simplified the deployment process, and we employed Mikrotik API to configure the platform. Our testing showed that even residential broadband users without yet received IPv6 could now have their own IPv6 block at home. This could be extremely useful for organizations that require IPv6 for experimental purposes before they receive IPv6 allocation from IDNIC, our NIR.

A flow chart diagram of the topology scenario.

The topology showed how non-IPv6-ready clients could obtain IPv6 from our IPv6 tunnel. Every client had to be registered first on our website, and we recorded some necessary information before releasing the IPv6 block. Below is a screenshot of how the BGP session was established.

The BGP Admin interface

In conclusion, the IPv6 deployment project in Indonesia, led by our team, made significant strides in addressing the challenges of widespread adoption. Our approach was multifaceted, combining technical solutions with a deep understanding of the organizational and human factors influencing technology adoption. Throughout the project, we uncovered critical insights. We recognized the necessity of higher-level approval in organizations for significant technological shifts, highlighting the need for advocacy at managerial levels. We also identified the logistical challenges of reconfiguring large-scale enterprise networks, which could deter IPv6 adoption. Moreover, a significant knowledge gap in IPv6 understanding and network basics outside Java was observed, suggesting a need for more targeted outreach and education. The journey towards comprehensive IPv6 deployment in Indonesia is far from over, but our project has laid a robust foundation for continued progress and expansion.

Project Review and Assessment

The project made significant progress in achieving its objectives. By conducting surveys to understand the reasons behind organizations' reluctance to implement IPv6, the team gained valuable insights that informed the design of tailored workshops. Three workshops were successfully delivered and attended by 108 participants from 64 organizations, primarily universities, with some representation from ISPs and government agencies. Participant feedback was positive, with many expressing interest in attending future workshops to further their understanding of IPv6 implementation.

The project's most important findings and outcomes revealed that the reluctance to implement IPv6 extended beyond technological concerns. By understanding the underlying factors causing organizations or engineers to resist adopting IPv6, the project successfully lowered barriers, increased confidence levels, and helped participants recognize the importance of implementing IPv6. The team planned to use these findings by publishing them in journals or conference presentations and disseminating the sociological and anthropological aspects of IPv6 adoption to benefit domestic and international audiences. Additionally, the project observed participants beginning to deploy their long-held, unannounced IPv6 allocations. These findings would also be shared with IDNIC to aid their efforts in promoting the use of IPv6 in Indonesia.

The project demonstrated significant potential for growth and further development. With positive participant feedback, many expressed their willingness to share their implementation experiences with other network organisations. By empowering participants to become agents of change in promoting IPv6 adoption, the campaign's momentum extended beyond governmental and IDNIC-led initiatives. This widespread enthusiasm fostered a sense of collective responsibility, encouraging enterprises to challenge their upstream providers to improve their IPv6 deployment efforts, ultimately contributing to the widespread adoption of the protocol.

The project activities played a vital role in supporting the development of local technical capacity, particularly in addressing the stark disparities in IPv6 understanding between Java and other regions in Indonesia. As the country is vast and diverse, bridging this knowledge gap was crucial for a balanced and comprehensive IPv6 implementation. Conducting workshops outside Java helped to level the technical knowledge among participants and reduce their dependency on counterparts in more advanced regions, such as Java. However, addressing this disparity necessitated long-term commitment and additional projects to ensure consistent and sustainable improvement in IPv6 understanding and deployment throughout the country.

The project significantly contributed to building both the capacity of institutions and individuals. Although our institution had successfully deployed IPv6 since 2018, it became evident that challenges differed among organizations. Despite some similar traits, a one-size-fits-all solution was insufficient. A tailored approach was necessary to incorporate factors such as cultural dynamics, technological adoption, organizational readiness, and budget constraints. The findings were instrumental in helping our institution establish appropriate policies, drawing on lessons learned from other organizations' experiences. Moreover, the individuals involved gained valuable insights, learning to empathize more and understanding that they cannot force others to follow the same path in deploying IPv6.

Project design, management, and implementation aspects were crucial to success. Our pre-deployment (concept) survey played a vital role in identifying the specific needs of individuals and organizations for IPv6 implementation. Acquiring knowledge was essential, but fostering confidence and reducing anxiety about potential network disruption when deploying IPv6 were also significant factors. Addressing these concerns helped individuals make a strong case for their management, highlighting the long-term benefits of IPv6 adoption. These aspects were instrumental in driving the project's success and promoting a broader understanding of IPv6 implementation.

Diversity and Inclusion

The project made a conscious effort to support the involvement of women and gender-diverse individuals in both the project team and the communities it served. During the project design phase, women were involved in various roles, such as administrative tasks and as engineers who helped set up the labs. This inclusive approach ensured that different perspectives and experiences were considered throughout the project's development and implementation.

Although the number of female participants could have been higher, the project team acknowledged the importance of addressing gender equality and inclusion. Several female participants attended the workshops, indicating increased inclusivity in a predominantly male-dominated field, such as network and internet infrastructure. Female engineers from our university were also involved in designing the workshop's lab, contributing to fostering a more inclusive environment in the field.

The project team demonstrated a commitment to supporting language and cultural diversity among the communities it served. By conducting one of the workshops outside Java, specifically in Kalimantan, the team made significant strides in reducing the gap in technological advancement in this region. This approach ensured that a broader range of communities and cultures were included, fostering a more inclusive environment for developing and adopting IPv6.

The project team recognized the importance of addressing the wide knowledge gap and varying deployment cultures across different regions. They aimed to drive further progress in IPv6 adoption and create a more inclusive landscape for technological growth in Indonesia. The project ensured that everyone benefited from technological advancements by engaging diverse communities and providing tailored support that considered their unique cultural and linguistic contexts.

Project Communication

We employed various communication and dissemination strategies to share project activities, outcomes, and deliverables throughout the reporting period. By partnering with established local communities in Indonesia and leveraging our active involvement in these communities, we fostered trust and encouraged participation in our project. We also published our work on social media to make the project more visible to various parties in Indonesia. To have a bigger impact, we utilised one of Indonesia's most popular social media platforms, Instagram.

Our organization, UII, had a strong reputation for managing international projects such as eduroam and the Indonesia Identity Federation, which benefited numerous communities. This positive track record further contributed to the high trust among our community of beneficiaries. Our consistent engagement in workshops, webinars, and training, including unpaid efforts, demonstrated our commitment to these communities and reinforced their willingness to be part of the project. Outside the official events, our workshop participants joined WhatsApp groups that often discussed how to implement IPv6 effectively and efficiently.

During the project, we documented our initial findings and the strategies we employed in a comprehensive journal paper. The paper's publication ensured the lessons learned were well-recorded and easily accessible. We aimed to share these insights not only with the ISIF.ASIA community but also with the broader academic and industry sectors, allowing for wider dissemination of knowledge. By making our findings available to a diverse audience, we hoped to promote a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities surrounding IPv6 implementation and contribute to the collective advancement of the field. The aspect that stood out the most was acknowledging people's difficulty in implementing IPv6, not only in terms of technical knowledge but also managerial problems and human perceptions of complex technology. This helped us to understand more about what organizations wanted and what could convince them to implement IPv6.

Project Sustainability

The implementation of our IPv6 deployment project was greatly supported by various opportunities during its course, ensuring its sustainability and future growth. We established relationships with principals and distributors of different IT vendors, leading to new partnerships that promised mutual benefits. These partnerships provided both moral support and tangible resources in the form of equipment and funding. This support was crucial in facilitating additional workshops and training sessions in the future. As the communities we worked with gained the ability to implement more advanced technology, their need for superior equipment grew, necessitating a shift from SMB-class to enterprise-class infrastructure. This evolution represented a symbiotic collaboration between our project and these communities, which we expected to strengthen over time.

Our close working relationship with IDNIC, the National Internet Registry of Indonesia, was also instrumental in the success of our project. IDNIC's full support, shown through providing expert trainers and in-depth knowledge, was invaluable for our training sessions. This collaboration extended beyond the traditional reach of IDNIC's membership, offering the potential to increase its membership as more organizations engage with us and apply for IP address allocation.

Meanwhile, Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) continued to play a pivotal role in driving the project forward. Our commitment to community training, established in 2017, remained steadfast, reinforced by the continuous support from various IT product principals and distributors. This long-term engagement ensured financial stability and reinforced our reputation as a technological training and development leader. The project also catalyzed broader technological discourse and advancement. The platforms we initiated for IPv6 deployment assistance, such as WhatsApp groups, transformed into vibrant hubs for diverse IT discussions, reflecting the growing technological maturity of these institutions.

This multifaceted approach, which included strong partnerships, collaborative efforts with IDNIC, and UII's enduring commitment to training and community engagement, underpinned the project's sustainability. It laid a solid foundation for continued impact and growth, ensuring that the benefits of IPv6 deployment and technological advancement were widely disseminated and deeply rooted in the communities we served.

Project Management

The university's mission of benefiting others aligned well with the project's goals, emphasizing the importance of being beneficial to the community. This alignment drove the team to engage actively in the project, using the support of ISIF.Asia funding to bring the university's vision to life. One of the key performance indicators measured within the university assessed individual involvement in community development and progress. To achieve more participants for the workshops, we worked closely with champions of internet development in all three locations: Balikpapan, Yogyakarta, and Bandung. With their help as project liaisons, we received requests for registrations exceeding the capacity that we could offer. We had to reject potential participants due to the venue's limited space. This indicated that many engineers were hungry to obtain knowledge and to receive such workshops and training that unfortunately did not happen often within their proximity.

Throughout the project lifecycle, the team worked diligently to strengthen its capacity and work towards sustainability. By involving as many engineers from the university as possible, the project provided opportunities for increased individual participation in external communities. This inclusive approach supported the university's mission and contributed to the project's overall success. Our engineers involved in the project also developed empathy for those who lagged behind us in technological advancement and deployment, proving exceedingly advantageous.

The project ignited a transformation within the organization by fostering a community-centric approach and emphasizing the importance of individual contributions to collective growth. By going beyond the university's standard processes and procedures, the project facilitated a more collaborative and efficient method for addressing IPv6 implementation obstacles.

Running this project put a spotlight on our institution. UII, in terms of internet development, was previously recognized as the initiator of the eduroam platform in Indonesia. After we ran the IPv6 adoption initiative (through this project), UII was invited to multiple institutions to provide workshops and feedback for their organization regarding internet and information technology development.

Capacity Building Planning

Throughout the IPv6 deployment project, our engineering team worked closely with trainers from IDNIC to design laboratory setups and workshop modules. This partnership helped to boost our team's technical skills and provided valuable insights into practical training. We learned that suitable venues and reliable sound systems are critical to successful workshops and that logistical details significantly impact the effectiveness of training sessions. Our collaboration with local champions at each training location was also valuable, as it helped us refine our communication skills and maintain strong relationships with all participants. Engaging with various local representatives allowed us to adapt to community needs and communicate effectively in diverse environments.

After each workshop, we conducted thorough debriefings and discussed lessons learned collaboratively. These discussions were pivotal in refining our approach for subsequent workshops, ensuring continuous improvement in our delivery and effectiveness. We adapted and evolved our strategies based on real-time feedback and experiences, significantly contributing to the project's success. The project also provided us with an opportunity to learn about fundraising. Our team successfully engaged with multiple vendor principals in Indonesia, opening avenues for potential future funding. This experience was crucial in understanding the landscape of project financing and developing strategies to sustain our initiatives in the long term.

Finally, each team member completed a mandatory introductory IPv6 course from IDNIC Academy. This requirement ensured that all team members were well-versed in IPv6, reinforcing their ability to advocate for its necessity and benefits in their respective circles and to workshop participants. The collective knowledge and confidence gained by the team in IPv6 technologies were crucial in strengthening our project's credibility and impact.

Project Recommendations and Use of Findings

We have learned a lot from our project findings which helped us in making informed decisions throughout the reporting period. At the beginning of the project, we were mainly focused on the technical aspects of IPv6 deployment. However, as the project progressed, we discovered that just addressing the technical challenges wasn't enough. We identified that several interconnected factors, such as management approval, budgetary constraints, practical efforts required for implementation, and confidence levels, were the primary reasons for the slow adoption of IPv6.

To tackle these challenges effectively, we adapted our workshop approach to deal with these complex issues better. By emphasizing the importance of understanding the "why" behind IPv6 adoption, in addition to the "how," we created a more comprehensive and practical learning experience for participants. Our approach recognized the pivotal role of organizational and human factors along with the technical complexities in the successful deployment of IPv6.

We actively involved management-level personnel from some of our participants' institutions. This engagement helped us to assist and convince them of the significant benefits that IPv6 adoption brings to their organizations. This strategy was crucial in gaining higher-level approval and support, which is often a major hurdle in implementing new technologies.

The project highlighted the knowledge gap between Java and regions outside Java, bringing to light the vast differences across Indonesia. Recognizing this, we identified the need to expand our reach, conducting more trainings and workshops in various parts of Indonesia to bridge this gap. This realization has informed our future planning, committing us to a more inclusive and widespread educational effort to promote IPv6 adoption throughout the country.

These insights have not only informed our current project but have also laid the groundwork for future initiatives. Our experiences and the lessons we have learned are invaluable assets that will guide our organization and the technical community in further advancing IPv6 deployment and addressing similar challenges in the field. As we move forward, we are committed to leveraging these learnings to enhance our strategies, expand our reach, and continue contributing to the technological development of Indonesia and beyond.

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